Bergamot (Italy) FCF (O) NOP

Bergamot (Italy) FCF (O) NOP
Latin Name: Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia risso
Country of Origin: Italy
Family: Rutaceae
Note: Topnote
Method of Extraction: Expression
Parts Used: expressed oil from the peels of the nearly ripe fruits from the small bergamot tree.

(Note: the leaves & twigs may be distilled to yield a Bergamot-Petitgrain Oil) (furo-coumarin free).
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Certified by I.C.E.A.

CAS: 8007-75-8
Flash Point: 58C

Aroma:
Light, delicate and refreshing. Characteristic of outer part of fresh bergamot peel. Something like orange and lemon with slight floral overtones. The characteristics of this topnote remain perceptible in good oils, it is followed by a still more characteristic oily herbaceous and somewhat balsamic body and dryout. The sweetness yields to a more tobacccolike and rich note, somewhat reminiscent of clary sage and neryl acetate. The freshness in the topnote is mainly due to the terpenes and small amounts of citral and aliphatic aldehydes.

History & Myth:
Bergamot is named after a small town in Italy, Bergamo in Lombardy, where the tree was originally cultivated. In Italy the oil was used in folk medicine for the treatment of fever and worms.

Chemical Constituents:
Linalool, Nerol, Terpinol (Alcohol), Linalyl acetate (Ester), Bergaptene (Lactone), Dipentene, Limonene (Terpenes)

Mind & Sprit:
Its sedative yet uplifting character is said to be excellent for anxiety, depression and nervous tension. Almost everyone likes bergamot's fresh, and lively but gentle, flowery fragrance.

Skin & Hair:
Its antiseptic and healing action seems to benefit oily skin conditions, especially when linked with stress. It is an effective deodorizing agent.

Blend well with:
Chamomile, Coriander, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Juniper, Jasmine, Lavender, Marjoram, Neroli, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Vetivert, Ylang Ylang

Perfumery:
Bergamot is used extensively in perfumery for its sweet freshness, particularly in citrus colognes, chypres, fougeres, modern fantasy bases, etc. Part of the sweetness and rich bodynote is due to the presence of large amount of linalylacetate combined with linalool and traces of methyl anthranilate.

Precautions:
Strong sunlight to be avoided after use as it increases photosensitivity of the skin. Certain furocoumarins, notably the chemical bergaptene have been found to be phototoxic on the skin.

Note:
According to the IFRA the average furocoumarin content is quite high at 0.2 to 0.5%.

*** Bergamot's phototoxicity is classified as severe and it should be used in dilutions of less then 1% to avoid phototoxicity.

*** FCF Bergamot has the Bergaptene removed so that is it safe for blends of massage and in perfumes. However, I would still only use a very smal percent (1%) dilution.

Ref:
S. Arctander ~ Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural OriginS. Battaglia ~ The Complete Guide to AromatherapyW. Sellar ~ Directory of Essential Oils

Additional Information: Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

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