Pepper, Black (O)

Pepper, Black (O)
Latin Name: Piper nigrum
Family: Piperaceae
Country of Origin: Madagascar
Method of Cultivation: Organic
Extraction Method: Steam distilled
Plant Part Used: dried, crushed but not quite ripe fruits of the pepper vine (black peppercorns)

CAS Number: 8006-82-4
Flash Point: > 60 C
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Chemcial constituents:
A typical chemical composition of black pepper :
- a-thujone (0.22 - 3.59%) - (terpenes)
- a-pinene (1.11 - 16.20%)
- camphene (0.23 - 1.44%)
- sabinene (0.14 - 13.78%)
- b-pinene (4.92 - 14-33%)
- a-phellandrene (0.46 - 27.37%)
- myrcene (1.66 - 2.53%)
- limonene (16.41 - 24.36%)
- caryophyllene (9.39.- 30.94%) - (sesquiterpenes)
- B-farnesene (0.03- 3.26%)
- B-bisabolene (0.09 - 5.18%)
- linalool (0.04 - 0.25%)
- terpinen-4-ol (0.01- 0.18%)

Properties:
Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, febriguge, laxative, rubefacient, stomachic, tonic.

Aroma:
Its odor is fresh, dry woody, warm spicy, reminiscent not only of the odor of dried black pepper, but also elemi, cubeb and other essential oils of high terpene-sesquiterpene content.

Description:
An almost water white or pale greenish gray, mobile liquid which becomes more viscous on aging.

History:
One of the very oldest and highly revered spices, used in India for over 4,000 years, mainly for urinary and liver disorders. The root word comes from Sanskrit "pippali', changed to the Latin 'piper'. The Romans paid their taxes with this spice rather than coins. It was used extensively in Greece to combat fever. During the Middle Ages the Pepper Trade was very important between India and Europe. In Medieval England Black pepper was used in charms and amulets for protection, most likely because it was used as an antidote to poison and used to prevent the spread of infection.

Mind:
Black Pepper is a very stimulating oil, strengthens the nerves and mind. Is said to give stamina where there is frustration, and warms the heart where there is indifference.

Body:
Black Pepper has rubifacient (warming by increasing flow of blood) and also analgesic (pain relieving) properties that may be useful for muscular aches and pain, tired and aching limbs and muscle stiffness. Useful in massage oil for arthritic aches and pains. May also be helpful where there is severe bruising. A good oil to use before excessive exertion like sports.

Black Pepper has been described as supporting the yang, generating warmth and dispelling cold.

Skin & Hair:
Helpful with bruises.

Perfumery:
This oil gives interesting effects with eugenol and isoeugenol, e.g., in carnation and rose bases, in Oriental fragrances, or in modern, dry aldehydic bases, ambres, etc. The effect in the rose base is particularly interesting.

Blends well with:
Basil, bergamot, cajeput, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, lavender, lemon, sweet & wild marjoram, nutmeg, palmarose, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, tea tree, ylang ylang.

Precautions:
Use ONLY in moderation. Excessive use may over stimulate kidneys. A skin irritant in high concentrations.

Ref:
S. Arctander ~ Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin
S. Battaglia ~ The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy
W. Sellar ~ The Directory of Essential Oils

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